Short on time, but I'll try and direct you to a few solid sources.
Will Brooker provides some commentary in on the changes to Batman (and GA Superheroes in general) that you might find helpful.
Brooker, Will. Batman Unmasked: Analyzing a Cultural Icon. London: Continuum, 2001. Print.
While Matt Costello's work focuses on the Cold War era, I think that it might be helpful to briefly look at where these heroes went immediately following WWII.
Costello, Matthew. Secret Identity Crisis: Comic Books & the Unmasking of Cold War America. New York: Continuum, 2009. Print.
Gerard Jones is essentially required reading for anyone who wants to collect or study Golden Age comics. It focuses in the rise of the medium prior to WWII and you also get a good feel for the cultural climate that created, shaped, and direct the industry from the 1920s/30s until the present day.
Jones, Gerard. The Men of Tomorrow. New York: Basic Books, 2004. Print.
For a source discussing the feminine perspective on comics, this one is a decent one (and a very easy read).
Madrid, Mike. The Supergirls. MN: Exterminating Angels Press, 2009. Print.
Although Wertham wrote his seminal book during the McCarthy-Red Scare period, it's important to know he wasn't the first person to attack comics, particularly in the post-WWII era. However, his work is the definitive piece that gave rise to the Comics Code, which would effectively put an end to the epic publishing comics enjoyed during WWII.
Wertham, Fredric. Seduction of the Innocent: Revised Edition. New York: Reinhart & Co., 1954. Print.
Earlier, I noticed you asked whether the comic creators Jewish background factored into the nationalistic / propaganda in comics. While I think it is safe to say many comic creators, like millions of Americans at the time, we anxious to see the Nazi regime put down, I'm hesitant to attribute the zeal of some comics predominantly to this component of their identity. Remember: Be wary of reading into authorial intent. Additionally, a large number of comic creators of the most popular books were Jewish--Bob Kane, Jerry Robinson, Joe Shuster, and Jerry Siegel to name only a few (there's also Eisner, Lee, Kirby, Simon, and on, and on). While Batman and Superman engaged in their patriotic duty ON their covers, the stories were often devoid of such patriotic themes and tropes. Brooker addresses this, and I agree with his assessment. So, not all Jewish creators were so eager--or at least, not all editors & publishers, some of whom were also Jewish--to jump on the bandwagon. I don't think it stems from a lack of patriotism, as there are other possible reasons (again, Brooker speaks to this if I remember correctly).
Anyhow, I hope this helps you in your research, and I'm sorry I missed this thread!